Kayunga District Profile
Key Geographical Information
The district has a total area of 1,816.9 square kilometres of which, land area is 1,702.4 square kilometres (93.3%) and the rest is water and wetlands (114.5 square kilometres). It lies between 1000-1200m above sea level. It is generally flat with a number of remarkable hills and part of it is a wetland (Ssezibwa), there is Lake Kyoga in the Northern part.
Land Tenure System and Land Use
Under Article 237 of 1995 in the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, land belongs to the citizens of Uganda. Mailo land, which was introduced under the 1900 Agreement, is the dominant land tenure system in the district. Inhabitants are settled on freehold, Kabaka’s land and customary tenure land.
The majority of the population is engaged in economic activities that have directly affected the climatic patterns of the district hence reducing the agricultural supplies leading to food insecurity, poverty and malnutrition. These include: Agricultural activities; Most of the land has been cultivated with sugar cane growing composing 30% of the agricultural land, dairy farming, Rampart charcoal burning, Constant reclamation of swamps and Encroachment on forest reserves.
Kayunga District has a varied climate. The southern part is characterised by tropical climate where the rainfall pattern is bi-modal. The district gets its first rains in March-May and its second September to December. The rainfall is evenly distributed. The Northern part of the district is characterized with savannah type of climate where one season of heavy rains is experienced and is not evenly distributed. The average annual rainfall ranges from 35-126 mm.
The vegetation cover is predominantly savannah with short grasses and thorny bushes. There are two forest reserves Nazigo and Bbaale. Swampy vegetation is also traced along river Ssezibwa.
Most of the soils in the district are black loamy soils which are used for agriculture. The other soil types are the brown sandy soils basically used for marram during road construction and some agriculture. The grey sandy soils are used for general construction and sand mining purposes. Last is the grey clay soils found in the swamps and other wetlands used for crafting, brick laying and agriculture.
The Administrative Structure
Kayunga District has 2 counties, 8 Sub-counties and fiveTown Councils. 74 parishes and 407 villages as shown below.
Number of Local Governments and Administrative Units Kayunga District
Sr. Unit Number of Units
Town Councils 5
Parishes/ Wards 72
The Demographic Characteristics
In terms of population, according to the 2014 National Population and Housing Census, the total population of Kayunga District was 368,064. Out of this total population, 181,920 (49%) were males and 186,142 (51%) were female. The population density is 231 persons per sq. km. The majority of the population is mainly concentrated in the growing trading centres of Kangulumira, Nazigo, Busaana, Kitimbwa, and Nakyesa and along the shores of Lake Kyoga at Kawongo Landing site. In terms of livelihood, the district is characterized by a highly rural population that is dependent on agriculture and fishing. The district is a multi-ethnic population with the biggest percentage being Baganda, the Basoga are second largest, the Bagisu, Basamya, the Banyara, the Bagwere, the Japadhola, the Lugbaras, the Sudanese and others. These are scattered throughout the district engaging in the various economic activities in the district.
Natural Resources Endowments
Kayunga District is endowed with abundant natural resources which include forests, fresh water bodies, and swamps.
Number of forests by sub-county and type
Number of forests by sub-county and type
Galiraya Sub county
1.Baizo forest reserve
2.Kiwula forest reserve
3.Wamale forest reserve
4.Kiwenda forest reserve
Kangulumira Sub county
1. Kalagala forest
Kayunga Sub County
2. Kisuule’s forest
3.sempinga Jame’s forest
Fresh Water Bodies
The district is endowed with two fresh water bodies: River Nile that covers Busaana, Kangulumira, Nazigo and Kayonza sub counties and Lake Kyoga that covers Galiraya sub-county.
Fresh water bodies by Sub-county
River Nile : Busaana, Kayonza, Kangulumira & Nazigo sub counties
Lake Kyoga : Galiraya sub county
Wetlands per sub-county and their status
Busaana sc : Kabumbuzi Swamp, Nabuganyi swamp & Namirembe swamp
Kayonza SC: Sezibwa wetland
Kayunga SC: Bubajjwe wetland
Kayunga TC : Kantenga & Busagazi Swamp
Kangurumira SC: Musamya wetland
Kitimbwa SC: Nabyona
Nazigo Busagazi swamp
According to the 2014 census, the literacy level of Kayunga District is…..(…% male and….% female) for all persons above 10 years . Following the introduction of UPE and USE, there has been a reduction in the illiteracy levels in the district.
Education is one of the key indicators that promote sustainable development that enhances the population in a number of livelihood skills. Kayunga District has a total of 167 government primary schools,11 fully aided government secondary schools and one government tertiary institute. The private schools are about are categorised under government schools, government aided and private schools. The distribution of these schools is shown in the table below.
The district is composed of 24 health units namely: the district hospital, two HCIV, 8 HCIII and 13 HCII. These health centres offer services such as: mother and child service (Ante Natal Care (ANC) and immunization), HCIIIs, HCIVs and the hospital carry out deliveries and handle caesarean cases.
HIV/AIDS services such as counselling, testing (HCT)and prevention of mother to child Transmission (PMTCT) services and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) are also handled at these health centres.
Other services offered include minor operations provided at 3 HCIIs, 7 laboratory examinations, admissions provided by 8 HCIIs, at the general district hospital, major operations, caesarean sections and the blood transfusion services are offered. Dental services are also provided in the general hospital and two HCIVs.
Below is the table showing the distribution of health units in the district:
Land-Kayunga has a number of farming activities that include arable farming, livestock farming, bee keeping, fishing, settlement and small scale business establishments. Around 55 % of the land is Arable with the community growing mainly food crops especially maize, about 31% of the parishes, Bananas at 17%, coffee by 14%, Beans by 12 %, cassava by 10%, sweet potatoes by 7 % and pineapples by 6%. The land is also covered by commercial sugar cane growing by Kakira and Lugazi sugar companies. 20 % of the land is used for livestock farming including cattle, sheep, pigs and goats. 10 % of the land is covered by wetland and fresh water bodies thus activities such as fishing and pottery is taking place. 15 % of the land in Kayunga is used for settlement by the population.
Kayunga has four major sources of power that supplies the business enterprises and households.
1. Electricity (UMEME grid, Generator and solar)
2. Gas and Bio Gas
3. Paraffin (lantern and tadooba)
According to a report by the NHPC 2014, 54 % of the business enterprises use electricity from the national grid as their main source of power supply. The second source of lightning for the households is the use of paraffin as shown in the table below.
Sources of power used to support business enterprises and households.
Sub-county name Candles Electricity National Grid Solar Electricity Firewood Paraffin Total
Main Economic Activities in the District
Subsistence agriculture like in most rural parts of the country employs almost 96% of the population. Coffee is the main cash crop but due to coffee wilt, its production has decreased. The main food crops include bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava, maize, beans and groundnuts. In addition, fruits (pineapples, watermelon, mangoes and passion) are grown for commercial purposes. The sub counties mainly engaged in crop farming are: - Kangulumira, Kitimbwa, Kayonza, Nazigo, Kayunga and Busaana. The rest are mainly involved in livestock farming.
Fishing is done in the Northern part of the district along L. Kyoga and River Nile. Other parts of the district (Kangulumira, Nazigo and Kayunga) engage in fish farming. The major fish catches include tilapia and Nile perch.
3 Livestock Farming
Livestock farming is carried out in Ntenjeru and Bbaale counties; animals mainly reared include cattle, goats and pigs.
The common processing plants in the district include: - maize mills and coffee hurlers. A milk refrigerating plant was established in Bbaale. There is a big potential for agro -based industries like meat processing, fruit processing which the private sector can take advantage of.
By 2014, Kayunga had 89 institutions operational of which 27 were Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs, 49 were community Based Organizations, 8 were savings and credit co-operative societies (SACCOs) and 5 where village saving and loan Associations(VSLA).
All these financial institutions had a number of activities which include: 59% of the NGOs provided social service activities, 67 % of the CBOs provided cultural and Educational activities. 1/3 of the SACCOs provided loans, savings and insurance and training services. The major source of funding for these NGOs/CBOs include membership fee at a 70.4% and 61 % respectively. The SACCOs and VSLAs get their source of funding from sale of shares and savings.