Kayunga District Profile
Kayunga District enjoys a unique location as it lies in the central region of Uganda, It is 74 Km East of Kampala City, bordered by Mukono district to the south, Jinja & Buikwe to the east, Kamuli to the northeast, Amolator & Apac in the North, Luwero in the west and Nakasongola to the northwest.
The District has a total land area of 1810 sq. km. It lies between 1000-1200m above sea level. It is generally flat with no remarkable hills and part of it is a wetland (Ssezibwa). There is Lake Kyoga in the northern part.
Kayunga District has a varied climate. The southern part is characterised by tropical climate where the rainfall pattern is bi-modal. The district gets its first rains in March-May and second in September - December. The rainfall is evenly distributed. The northern part of the district is characterized by the savannah type of climate (this is part of the cattle corridor) where one season of heavy rain is experienced and is not evenly distributed.
The vegetation cover is predominantly savannah with short grasses and thorny bushes. There are two forest reserves Nazigo and Bbaale. Swampy vegetation is also traced along River Ssezibwa.
According to the results of the 2017 Population Census, Kayunga had a total of 370,210 people
The District is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and diversity in ethnicity. The following tribes are prevalent: Baganda, Basoga, Baruli, Iteso, Jopadhola, kuku, Bagwere, Banyole, Bagisu, Banyala and Banyarwanda.
The district is accessed with all mobile telephone networks; It can easily be reached from both Kampala and Jinja, the well-known urban centers in the country. The District connects to Kampala and Jinja by tarmac roads, a distance of 74 Kms and 44Kms respectively.
Subsistence agriculture like in most rural parts of the country employs almost 96% of the population. Coffee is the main cash crop but. The main food crops include maize,bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava, maize, beans and ground nuts. In addition, fruits (pineapples, watermelon, mangoes and passion) are grown for commercial purposes. The sub counties mainly engaged in crop farming are Kangulumira, Kitimbwa, Kayonza, Nazigo, Kayunga and Busaana. The rest are mainly involved in livestock farming.
Fishing is done in the northern part of the district along L.Kyoga and River Nile. Other parts of the District (Kangulumira, Nazigo and Kayunga) engage in fish farming. The major fish catches include tilapia and Nile perch.
Live stock Farming
Livestock farming is carried out in Ntenjeru and Bbaale counties; animals mainly reared include cattle, goats nad pigs. A livestock market was established in Bbaale to provide better marketing of the animals.
The District also engages in general trade, agro processing among others
There are 396 primary schools of which 167 are government and 229 are private. 65 secondary schools of which 12are government aided and 53 are private and 1 government Technical school.
The district has 21 government health facilities. 1 Regional Referral Hospital i.e.; 2 health centre IVs (Kangulumira and Bbaale), 13HC IIIs and 5 HC IIs.
Accessibility: The District is accessible by road and water. It can easily be reached from both Kampala and Jinja, the well-known urban centers in the country. The district connects to Kampala and Jinja by tarmac roads a distance of 74 Kms and 44 Kms respectively. It also connects with Kamuli District by ferry and Amolator district by boats
Electricity: Hydro-Electric Power available. All Sub counties are connected to the national grid. Through the Rural Electrification program, electricity is being extended to more parishes and villages in the district especially in Bbaale constituency.
Tourist attractions: Some of the tourist sites are Kalagala Falls, sport fishing on Kirindi Island, Seeta -Nyiize rocks, Bbaale cultural rocks, cultural dances ( different tribes) , pineapple gardens, Isimba dam, Sezibwa river, Kalagala cultural site , Kawongo landing site, beautiful view of R.Nile joining onto L.Kyoga waters among others.
The district is made up of, 2 counties, 8 sub counties, 5 town councils, 61 parishes and 374 villages including cells. Its headquarters are at Ntenjeru village in Kayunga town council.
The District Council
Currently the District council comprises of 25 members, headed by the District speaker.
The Technical Team
The District has a technical team made up of 11 departments and units namely: Administration, Finance, Health, Education, Works, Council & Statutory bodies, Production & Marketing, Community Based Services, Planning Unit and Audit. This team is headed by the Chief Administrative Officer who is the head of civil service in the district.
EDUCATION AND SPORTS
To enroll and retain all school going age children in schools in Kayunga District throughout the given education cycles.
District council recognizes the requisite for education for all (EFA) in primary and secondary level.
The District council has instituted various measures to realize the goals and these measures include; increasing and improving equitable access to quality education at all levels and improving effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of the education services.
Primary Education Level
Primary education is the core of the schooling system because it’s at this level where the substratum of human capital development is built. There are 396 primary schools of which 167 are government and 229 are private.
The District has continued to focus on increasing investment in the Primary education and thus a number of developments have been recorded with regards to Primary Education especially under the Universal Primary Education in order to improve access, equity, and quality of primary education with the goal of eradicating illiteracy and transforming society from the dejection of poverty.
There are 65 secondary schools of which 12 are government aided and 53 are privately owned secondary schools. Out of these, 10 schools are implementing the Universal Secondary Education Programme (USE).
The District has 3 Technical schools ie Kayunga technical school in Kayunga Town council, Ahamed Seguya Memorial Technical School and St. Paul Polytechnic College.
It has also 3 Vocational schools i.e one of which is public and the others are privately owned. These include Mirembe Self Help Vocational school in Kayunga Town Council, Natteta Vocational School, Sekisinde Vocational School in Nazigo sub-county and Centenary Vocational college in Kayunga sub-county.
It also has Nazigo Primary Teachers’ college
The department is composed of the following sectors;
The sector’s goal is “to ensure proper quality in design, construction, inspection and maintenance of all Local Administration building structures, roads and safe water provision in the district”.
The roads sector is responsible for the rehabilitation and maintenance of the district road network to a motorable state for transportation of person, property and produce.
Brief description of major district roads and their current status and planned activities
The District has a total road network of 1201.8 Km categorized under the following classes.
a) National roads: 4 roads under UNRA- 208 km & these include: Mukono
Boarder-Kayunga Town, Kayunga Town-Galiraya, Kayunga-Busaana road and
The District has Ssezibwa Bridge that is not in good condition.
A bridge is also being constructed on R. Nile under the Isimba dam project.
b) District roads: 340 km (Under District): 195km (57%) is gravel, 145km (43%) is earth 35% of the road surface area is good, 43% is fair, 12 % is in poor condition & 10% is in bad condition.
c) Urban roads: 63km (Under Kayunga Town Council): _ Only 0.2 km (0.3%) is tarmac, 20.7km (32%) is gravel & 44.6km (68%) is earth surface.
d) Community Access roads (CARs): District has a total of 653.8km of CARs maintained by SCs & 65.5km under Kayunga Town Council.
Before the creation of the district in 2000, the average safe water coverage was approximately 30%, however it’s now pegged at 70%. This capacity covers boreholes, shallow wells and piped water schemes in Kayunga Town council, Kangulumira, Nazigo, Kasana and Bbaale rural growth centres. This implies that 30% of the population in the District is still utilizing water from ponds, unprotected streams, rivers and lake.
There are 337 boreholes and 223 shallow wells in the locality. These have enabled approximately 41,715 households to access safe water. Functionality is about 80%. Piped water is another source of safe water in the locality. There are 245 stand pipes in Kayunga Town Council and Kangulumira sub-county. These are serving approximately 4,500 people in the locality. Other sources include springs, and open water bodies like lakes and rivers. The major problems related to most water sources is poor water quality and non-functional water management committees.
There are irrigation programs due to plenty of water bodies in the district.
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING DEPARTMENT
The department is composed of the following sectors:
6. Operation Wealth Creation.
It’s the major employer of the residents in the District, thus it’s the major driving force for the transformation of our society from a predominantly subsistence economy to a modern and commercialized economy.
In agriculture, emphasis has been placed on investing in 10 enterprises (Coffee, Bananas, Pineapples, Maize, Rice, Cassava, Beans, Fish farming, animal products, and apiculture), along the value chains.
Focus is being put on: increasing access to and effective use of critical farm inputs; promoting sustainable land use and soil management; increasing access to agricultural finance with specific emphasis on women youthful and PWD farmers; and strengthening agricultural institutions for effective coordination and service delivery
FINANCE & PLANNING
The goal of the directorate is to formulate realistic plans and efficient allocation of financial resources for equitable development.
COMMUNITY BASED SERVICES DEPARTMENT
This department is composed of various sub-sectors that include Gender and Women, Community Development, Disability & Elderly, Probation and Social Welfare, Youth, culture and Labour.
The Sector’s core functions include social protection, of the vulnerable, women empowerment, community mobilization, gender mainstreaming and participatory planning.
The community based services have been extended to PWDs, women & youth. Probation, OVC & adult literacy services have also been provided to the community.
Achievements registered by the sector (2022/2023)
The department is implementing various programs which include the following;
1. Youth Livelihood Program. The Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development has provided UGX 207,100,000/= to 29 youth groups in the district, whereby youth groups have benefited.
2. UWEP; The district received 135,855,000 to 25 women projects.
3. SAGE; 2321 older persons received 302,581,290/=
Key Geographical Information
The district has a total area of 1,816.9 square kilometres of which, land area is 1,702.4 square kilometres (93.3%) and the rest is water and wetlands (114.5 square kilometres). It lies between 1000-1200m above sea level. It is generally flat with a number of remarkable hills and part of it is a wetland (Ssezibwa), there is Lake Kyoga in the Northern part.
Land Tenure System and Land Use
Under Article 237 of 1995 in the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, land belongs to the citizens of Uganda. Mailo land, which was introduced under the 1900 Agreement, is the dominant land tenure system in the district. Inhabitants are settled on freehold, Kabaka’s land and customary tenure land.
The majority of the population is engaged in economic activities that have directly affected the climatic patterns of the district hence reducing the agricultural supplies leading to food insecurity, poverty and malnutrition. These include: Agricultural activities; Most of the land has been cultivated with sugar cane growing composing 30% of the agricultural land, dairy farming, Rampart charcoal burning, Constant reclamation of swamps and Encroachment on forest reserves.
Kayunga District has a varied climate. The southern part is characterised by tropical climate where the rainfall pattern is bi-modal. The district gets its first rains in March-May and its second September to December. The rainfall is evenly distributed. The Northern part of the district is characterized with savannah type of climate where one season of heavy rains is experienced and is not evenly distributed. The average annual rainfall ranges from 35-126 mm.
The vegetation cover is predominantly savannah with short grasses and thorny bushes. There are two forest reserves Nazigo and Bbaale. Swampy vegetation is also traced along river Ssezibwa.
Most of the soils in the district are black loamy soils which are used for agriculture. The other soil types are the brown sandy soils basically used for marram during road construction and some agriculture. The grey sandy soils are used for general construction and sand mining purposes. Last is the grey clay soils found in the swamps and other wetlands used for crafting, brick laying and agriculture.
The Administrative Structure
Kayunga District has 2 counties, 8 Sub-counties and fiveTown Councils. 74 parishes and 407 villages as shown below.
Number of Local Governments and Administrative Units Kayunga District
Sr. Unit Number of Units
Town Councils 5
Parishes/ Wards 72
The Demographic Characteristics
In terms of population, according to the 2014 National Population and Housing Census, the total population of Kayunga District was 368,064. Out of this total population, 181,920 (49%) were males and 186,142 (51%) were female. The population density is 231 persons per sq. km. The majority of the population is mainly concentrated in the growing trading centres of Kangulumira, Nazigo, Busaana, Kitimbwa, and Nakyesa and along the shores of Lake Kyoga at Kawongo Landing site. In terms of livelihood, the district is characterized by a highly rural population that is dependent on agriculture and fishing. The district is a multi-ethnic population with the biggest percentage being Baganda, the Basoga are second largest, the Bagisu, Basamya, the Banyara, the Bagwere, the Japadhola, the Lugbaras, the Sudanese and others. These are scattered throughout the district engaging in the various economic activities in the district.
Natural Resources Endowments
Kayunga District is endowed with abundant natural resources which include forests, fresh water bodies, and swamps.
Number of forests by sub-county and type
Number of forests by sub-county and type
Galiraya Sub county
1.Baizo forest reserve
2.Kiwula forest reserve
3.Wamale forest reserve
4.Kiwenda forest reserve
Kangulumira Sub county
1. Kalagala forest
Kayunga Sub County
2. Kisuule’s forest
3.sempinga Jame’s forest
Fresh Water Bodies
The district is endowed with two fresh water bodies: River Nile that covers Busaana, Kangulumira, Nazigo and Kayonza sub counties and Lake Kyoga that covers Galiraya sub-county.
Fresh water bodies by Sub-county
River Nile : Busaana, Kayonza, Kangulumira & Nazigo sub counties
Lake Kyoga : Galiraya sub county
Wetlands per sub-county and their status
Busaana sc : Kabumbuzi Swamp, Nabuganyi swamp & Namirembe swamp
Kayonza SC: Sezibwa wetland
Kayunga SC: Bubajjwe wetland
Kayunga TC : Kantenga & Busagazi Swamp
Kangurumira SC: Musamya wetland
Kitimbwa SC: Nabyona
Nazigo Busagazi swamp
According to the 2014 census, the literacy level of Kayunga District is…..(…% male and….% female) for all persons above 10 years . Following the introduction of UPE and USE, there has been a reduction in the illiteracy levels in the district.
Education is one of the key indicators that promote sustainable development that enhances the population in a number of livelihood skills. Kayunga District has a total of 167 government primary schools,12 fully aided government secondary schools and one government tertiary institute. The private schools are about are categorised under government schools, government aided and private schools. The distribution of these schools is shown in the table below.
The district is composed of 21 health units namely: the kayunga regional referal hospital, two HCIV, 13 HCIIIs and 5 HCIIs. These health centres offer services such as: mother and child service (Ante Natal Care (ANC) and immunization), HCIIIs, HCIVs and the hospital carry out deliveries and handle caesarean cases.
HIV/AIDS services such as counselling, testing (HCT)and prevention of mother to child Transmission (PMTCT) services and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) are also handled at these health centres.
Other services offered include minor operations provided at 3 HCIIs, 7 laboratory examinations, admissions provided by 5 HCIIs, at the Regional referral hospital, major operations, caesarean sections and the blood transfusion services are offered. Dental services are also provided in the general hospital and two HCIVs.
Below is the table showing the distribution of health units in the district:
Land-Kayunga has a number of farming activities that include arable farming, livestock farming, bee keeping, fishing, settlement and small scale business establishments. Around 55 % of the land is Arable with the community growing mainly food crops especially maize, about 31% of the parishes, Bananas at 17%, coffee by 14%, Beans by 12 %, cassava by 10%, sweet potatoes by 7 % and pineapples by 6%. The land is also covered by commercial sugar cane growing by Kakira and Lugazi sugar companies. 20 % of the land is used for livestock farming including cattle, sheep, pigs and goats. 10 % of the land is covered by wetland and fresh water bodies thus activities such as fishing and pottery is taking place. 15 % of the land in Kayunga is used for settlement by the population.
Kayunga has four major sources of power that supplies the business enterprises and households.
1. Electricity (UMEME grid, Generator and solar)
2. Gas and Bio Gas
3. Paraffin (lantern and tadooba)
According to a report by the NHPC 2023, 54 % of the business enterprises use electricity from the national grid as their main source of power supply. The second source of lightning for the households is the use of paraffin as shown in the table below.
Sources of power used to support business enterprises and households.
Sub-county name Candles Electricity National Grid Solar Electricity Firewood Paraffin Total
Main Economic Activities in the District
Subsistence agriculture like in most rural parts of the country employs almost 96% of the population. Coffee is the main cash crop but due to coffee wilt, its production has decreased. The main food crops include bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava, maize, beans and groundnuts. In addition, fruits (pineapples, watermelon, mangoes and passion) are grown for commercial purposes. The sub counties mainly engaged in crop farming are: - Kangulumira, Kitimbwa, Kayonza, Nazigo, Kayunga and Busaana. The rest are mainly involved in livestock farming.
Fishing is done in the Northern part of the district along L. Kyoga and River Nile. Other parts of the district (Kangulumira, Nazigo and Kayunga) engage in fish farming. The major fish catches include tilapia and Nile perch.
3 Livestock Farming
Livestock farming is carried out in Ntenjeru and Bbaale counties; animals mainly reared include cattle, goats and pigs.
The common processing plants in the district include: - maize mills and coffee hurlers. A milk refrigerating plant was established in Bbaale. There is a big potential for agro -based industries like meat processing, fruit processing which the private sector can take advantage of.
By 2014, Kayunga had 89 institutions operational of which 27 were Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs, 49 were community Based Organizations, 8 were savings and credit co-operative societies (SACCOs) and 5 where village saving and loan Associations(VSLA).
All these financial institutions had a number of activities which include: 59% of the NGOs provided social service activities, 67 % of the CBOs provided cultural and Educational activities. 1/3 of the SACCOs provided loans, savings and insurance and training services. The major source of funding for these NGOs/CBOs include membership fee at a 70.4% and 61 % respectively. The SACCOs and VSLAs get their source of funding from sale of shares and savings.