Agriculture is the major economic activity as well as the major source of employment. 93% of the population is employed in subsistence agriculture. Agricultural production mainly involves growing of coffee, bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava, maize, beans and groundnuts. Fruits particularly pineapples, melon, passion fruits and mangoes are also grown for commercial purposes. The main cash crop is coffee. Crop farming is concentrated in the sub-counties of Kangulumira, Kitimbwa, Kayonza, Nazigo, Kayunga and Busaana; while Galiraya and Bbaale sub counties are mainly engaged in livestock farming. Livestock kept include cattle, goats and pigs. The district has a total of 855 exotic and 6,870 indigenous head of cattle, 34,556 goats, 4819 sheep, 40,891pigs, 26800 chickens (layers).
LivestockThe most commonly reared livestock in the district are cattle, goats, pigs and poultry
With regard to cattle, the district has an annual production of 4500, 000kgs of meat as well as 15,604,650 liters of milk, making dairy farming a potential profitable undertaking in the area. Bbaale Sub County has the largest and most established livestock market in the district. Most of the beef produced is consumed locally while more than half of the milk produced is exported to other districts especially Kampala, Jinja and Mukono.
With regard to dairy farming, more than 15 million liters of milk are produced in the district. Half of the milk produced is consumed locally, while the other half is exported to neighboring districts. Cattle keepers in the district are mostly concentrated in Bbaale and Kayonza sub-counties while poultry farmers are concentrated in Kayunga town council where market is more readily available.
Fishing is also a major activity in Kayunga district since the district has access to water bodies that are rich in fisheries resources. The major fish catches include: - Tilapia, Nile perch and mukene (silver fish).
Fisheries provide livelihood to 2.7% (9,110) of the total population in the district. The estimated annual production is 2,139 tons and an estimated income of Ug.Shs 1.0 Billion. Fish farming is not yet fully exploited and out of the 42 fish ponds in the district, only 16 (38%) are stocked. However
Bee keeping is not a pronounced activity in Kayunga district. The activity is being engaged in by only 6 groups, located in Busaana and Kitimbwa sub counties, with a total of 19 local bee hives. More males (30 individuals) than females (12individuals) are engaged in bee keeping. The only bee hives adopted are the local bee hives, pointing to a gap in adoption of new technology in bee keeping. However, apiculture is one of the activities under the production road map the District has priotised to develop ( For details on this please see the Production road map under documents & publications)
The industrial sector in Kayunga district is still undeveloped. There are 17 small scale metal fabrication workshops located in Nazigo (2), Bbaale (3), and Kayunga town council (12). Other small scale industrial enterprises include 52 carpentry workshops and 19 stone quarries. Enterprises categorized as medium scale include 88 maize mills, 21 coffee hurlers, 7 rice hurlers and 2 milk processing plants i.e. 1 cooling plant owned and operated by a group of dairy farmers in Bbaale and a cheese production plant in Bbaale Sub-county owned by seasons diary. There are no large scale industries in the district. It is hence evident that industry as a sub-sector (manufacturing and agro processing) is still young and underdeveloped.
The hospitality industry consists of 1 hotel (Katikomu hotel), 65 restaurants, 84 tea rooms, 56 bars and 15 lodges. The hotel is situated in Kayunga town council while the rest of the facilities are distributed in different sub-counties, but most concentrate in Nazigo, Kitimbwa, Bbaale and Busaana sub-counties. With regard to gender and employment, mainly employ females, with more than 62% of those employed in the hospitality industry are females.
There are 8 major tourist facilities. These include: 1 water falls (Kalagala falls) on R.Nile in Kangulumira sub-county with an adjacent cultural site where a variety of crafts are sold, Sezibwa Bridge, “lemon on the lake’, and 3 central forest reserves. Generally, the district has not fully utilized the existing tourism potentials in the district.
Some of the historical secondary schools in the district include St. Kalemba S.S Nazigo , Bbaale S.S & tertiary institutions include Nazigo Primary Teachers’ college.
With regard to professional services, the district is grossly underserved. There are human clinics, animal drug shops, fuel stations and beauty parlors. Other professional services are accessed from Mukono and Kampala, which is a constraint to accessibility and local economic development. The implication on development is that the service sector contributes negligibly to employment, possibly with the exception of education and health sectors.
There is notably low value addition on agricultural products in Kayunga district. For example, fruits and vegetables are produced on relatively large scale but little value is added to them. Most of them are sold as raw products. A few farmers at individual level extract juice from pineapples and package it for sale. There are also some wine-making from pineapples by Kangulumira Women Empowerment Association. Another form of value addition relates to coffee hurling and maize & rice milling. The major problems that constrain value addition are: low capacity in terms of equipment (tooling), high electricity tariffs, low knowledge of processing, lack of domestic market arising out of a large subsistence production, high poverty levels and lack of household income to purchase processedcommodities.